Hulunbuir is a prefecture-level city in North China’s Inner Mongolia autonomous region, with a total area of 252,777 square kilometers. The city has two districts, five county-level cities and seven banners under its jurisdiction.
At the end of 2019, the city's permanent population was 2.53 million. Among them, the urban population was 1.85 million, the rural population was 682,700, and the permanent population's urbanization rate was 73.06 percent.
Hulunbuir is in the northeast of Inner Mongolia autonomous region and is named after Hulun Nur Lake and Buir Lake – both located within its territory.
Hulunbuir borders Russia in the north and northwest by the Ergune River and borders Mongolia in the west and southwest. Hulunbuir shares a 1,733.32-km border with Russia and Mongolia.
The city has a three-dimensional transportation network comprising railways, highways and aviation facilities. Binzhou Railway and National Highway 301 run through the city.
It has two international airports, in Hailaar and Manzhouli, operating more than 50 flight routes, including international destinations in Russia and Mongolia, as well as domestic destinations such as Beijing, Hohhot, Harbin, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
As the only city adjacent to both Russia and Mongolia, Hulunbuir has opened eight national-level ports, including Manzhouli and Heishantou.
Hulunbuir has 126,000 sq km of forests, 100,000 sq km of grasslands, 20,000 sq km of wetlands and more than 500 lakes and 3,000 rivers, which form the largest and most complete ecosystem in China and make Hulunbuir the only key development area for grassland tourism.
In 2019, the city's GDP reached 119.30 billion yuan ($17.90 billion), an increase of 2.7 percent, and the per capita GDP was 47,116 yuan, a rise of 2.6 percent.
The added value of the primary industry was 27.91 billion yuan, increasing 0.7 percent; the added value of the secondary industry was 33.26 billion yuan, rising 2.2 percent; and the added value of the tertiary industry was 58.14 billion yuan, increasing 4.1 percent.